Functional programming in Scala

Functional Programming focuses on using functions as the basic units to construct the whole program. As a first step to get an insight into Functional Programming in scala, I summarize here some functional programming techniques in the scala language to build the functions.

1. Local functions
Like local Variables, local Functions can be defined inside a function

object LongLines {
     def processFile(filename: String, width: Int) {
           def processLine(line: String) {
              if (line.length > width)
                println(filename +": "+ line)
           val source = Source.fromFile(filename)
           for (line <- source.getLines())

2. Function values
You can define a function without name (which is called a function literal) and then pass them around as a value after compiled (which is called a function value). You can store a function value in a variable, since a function value is also an object.

 *A function literal without name*  
     (x: Int) => x + 1

 *Store a function value in a variable*
     scala> var increase = (x: Int) => x + 1
     increase: (Int) => Int = <function1>

3. Partially applied functions
A partially applied function is an expression in which you don’t supply all of the arguments needed by the function. Instead, you supply some, or none, of the needed arguments.

 scala> def sum(a: Int, b: Int, c: Int) = a + b + c
 sum: (a: Int, b: Int, c: Int)Int

 *Supply 2/3 arguments*
     scala> val a = sum( _: Int, 2, 3 )
     a: Int => Int = <function1>

 *Supply 1/3 arguments*
     scala> val b = sum( _: Int, _: Int, 3 )
     b: (Int, Int) => Int = <function2>

*Supply 0/3 arguments*
     scala> val c = sum _    
     c: (Int, Int, Int) => Int = <function3>

4. Closures
A closure is a function value of a function literal with free variables

*A free variable*
     scala> var more = 1
     more: Int = 1              

 *A closure*
     scala> val addMore = (x: Int) => x + more
     addMore: (Int) => Int = <function1>    

*Call a closure*
     scala> addMore(10)
     res17: Int = 11

5. Curried functions
A curried function transform a traditional function with one list of multiple parameters to multiple lists of one parameter.

*A traditional function with one list of multiple parameters.*
    scala> def traditionalSum(x: Int, y: Int) = x + y           
    traditionalSum: (x: Int,y: Int)Int                  

    scala> traditionalSum(1, 2)
    res4: Int = 3

*A curried function with multiple lists of one argument*
     scala> def curriedSum(x: Int)(y: Int) = x + y
     curriedSum: (x: Int)(y: Int)Int            

     scala> curriedSum(1)(2)
     res5: Int = 3

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